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Special precautions for storage:
Store only in original packaging. Do not expose to direct humid air, light, or humid source. Keep away from children & dosage provided under parenteral guidance.

N-Acetylcysteine is a form of the amino acid cysteine present in our body to support immune system function through:
 Replenishing glutathione: Glutathione is a potent antioxidant needed for optimal immune system function. (eb™ L-Glutathione)
 Breaking down mucus: NAC helps clear mucus seen in respiratory conditions such as bronchitis. Similar to Serrapeptase (eb™ Serrapeptase), NAC is known as a mucolytic – a compound that makes mucus less thick and sticky and easier to clear. NAC has been used for over four decades to clear mucus associated with chronic airway conditions and to help with immunity-related illnesses.
 Protecting against bacteria: NAC is capable of disrupting the biofilms of harmful bacteria(s). Researchers propose N-acetylcysteine also works via other mechanisms, such as neutralizing oxygen radicals, pro-inflammatory molecules, and heavy metals. However, these mechanisms require further research.
 Support Immunity: NAC is the prodrug form of the amino acid L-cysteine, meaning that it turns into L-cysteine when ingested. In turn, L-cysteine increases body’s levels of glutathione – a potent anti-oxidant. Because glutathione is involved in healthy immune system function and can become depleted due to immunity-related conditions, supplementing N-acetylcysteine is believed to support immunity by keeping glutathione levels optimal.
 Why so special for Dietary or Nutritional benefits in Vulnerable & Sick ones: If your glutathione levels are already healthy, then N-acetylcysteine supplementation will not raise them any further. This helps explain why N-acetylcysteine supplementation seems to be most effective in older adults, weak children, vulnerable & sick adolescents, as they are more likely to have low glutathione with higher rates of frequent infections.
 Dosage for Immunity:
o Adult Clinical (studies) have used: 600 – 2400 mg divided 1-2 times daily
o Children (above 10) & Adolescent Dose: 30 – 70 mg, once or twice daily for dietary needs only.
o Abundant fluid intake supports the mucolytic effect of acetylcysteine.
 Contraindications:
o Hypersensitivity to the active substance, other chemically similar substance (for example carbocisteine, erdosteine or mecysteine) or to any of the other ingredients.
o Patients with bronchial asthma should be closely monitored during consumption. Avoid in case of raised asthma-allergic events & contact respiratory consultant / qualified person.
o There are no studies on the efficacy and safety of acetylcysteine for adolescent population. However, mild to severe adverse reactions have been reported but only at high doses given as IV (injection) acetylcysteine in adults and adolescents.
o Acetylcysteine can cause interference with the colorimetric assay method for the determination of salicylates, at laboratory tests level. Acetylcysteine can interfere with tests for ketones in urine.
o Antitussive drugs and acetylcysteine should not be administered concomitantly because reducing the cough reflex may lead to a build-up of bronchial secretions.
o Activated charcoal or (eb™FoodFartTruce / eb™FFT) may reduce the effect of acetylcysteine.
o In vitro tests have shown that when cephalosporin antibiotics and acetylcysteine are mixed, there is a degree of antibiotic inactivation. It is precautionary to advise the administration of oral antibiotics at least two hours before or after acetylcysteine.
o Fertility, pregnancy and lactation: Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity. As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use during pregnancy. Breastfeeding; There is insufficient information on the excretion of acetylcysteine in human milk. A risk to the new-borns / infants cannot be excluded.
 Pharmacokinetic properties:
o Absorption: Following oral administration, acetylcysteine is rapidly and almost completely absorbed and metabolised in the liver to cysteine (the pharmacologically active metabolite), diacetylcysteine, cysteine & further mixed disulphides.
o Distribution: Due to the high first-pass effect, the bioavailability of orally administered acetylcysteine is very low (approximately 10%). In humans, maximum plasma concentrations are achieved after 1-3 hours with the maximum plasma concentration of the metabolite cysteine in the range of approximately 2µmol/l. The protein binding of Acetylcysteine was determined to be about 50%.

• Polyphenolic compounds made from plants and are typically found in certain fruits and vegetables. Some foods, such as chocolate and wine, contain bioflavonoids as well. They are important natural compounds with diverse biologic activities. They are an important part of proper nutrition because they act as potent antioxidants.
• Citrus bioflavonoids constitute an important series of flavonoids. They are derived naturally from citrus fruits, and they have been shown to act synergistically with vitamin C to neutralise free radicals. The major bioflavonoids found in citrus fruits are diosmin, diosmetin, hesperidin, naringin, naringenin, narirutin, neohesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin, quercetin, rutin, eriodictyol and eriocitrin.
• Citrus bioflavonoids have been shown in studies to be potent antioxidants. Increasing our intake of bioflavonoids helps to prevent free radicals from causing harm in the body. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits of citrus bioflavonoids have been shown to support metabolic, circulatory, cognitive and joint health. Citrus bioflavonoids support balanced immune cell activity for better immune response, and support for respiratory health.
• Citrus bioflavonoids have a synergistic function with vitamin C for enhanced immune support, and have also been shown to increase the absorption of vitamin C. They provide metabolic support and help to maintain healthy cholesterol levels.
• Citrus bioflavonoids are ideal for applications targeting support for the immune system, respiratory health, cognitive health, vascular integrity, metabolism, cholesterol, joint health and systemic antioxidant support.
• eb™LIQ’s Citrus Bioflavonoids are carefully selected to a total bioflavonoid content by HPLC, measuring specific antioxidant activity against the most influential free radicals that are naturally found in the human body: hydroxyl, peroxyl, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and superoxide anion. They might also get examined for NF-kB values. NF-kB plays a key role in regulating and balancing the immune response.
• Bioflavonoids sourced from orange, lemon, lime, tangerine and grapefruit provide the broadest bioflavonoid profiles. Each one offers its own unique profile, creating better opportunities for customised formulations.
• Standardised bioflavonoid ingredients ensure consistency in every eb™ formulation manufactured batch.
• Studies published in various Reviews in Food, Science, Nutrition, Medicine & Physiology journals have demonstrated:
o Favourable outcomes for the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, lipid-lowering & insulin-sensitising properties of the bioflavonoid hesperidin.
o The biologic activities of citrus bioflavonoids, particularly on lipid metabolism in obesity, oxidative stress and inflammation in the context of metabolic syndrome.
o In particular, it showed that the citrus bioflavonoid ARINGIN displayed strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.
o Bioflavonoid hesperidin may have therapeutic effect on allergic asthma. It demonstrated profound inhibitory effects on airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma.

Beta-glucans: 200mg
• These are naturally occurring polysaccharides. These glucose polymers are constituents of the cell wall of certain pathogenic bacteria and fungi.
• The healing and immune-stimulating properties of mushrooms have been known for thousands of years in the Eastern countries. These mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides that mostly belong to group of beta-glucans.
• These substances increase host immune defence by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.
• The induction of cellular responses by beta-glucans is likely to involve specific interaction with several cell surface receptors, as complement receptor 3 (CR3; CD11b/CD18), lactosylceramide, selected scavenger receptors, and dectin-1 (betaGR).
• β-Glucans also show anti-carcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens. As immune-stimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth in promotion stage (few studies).
• Anti-angiogenesis can be one of the pathways through which beta-glucans can reduce proliferation.
• In 1997, the FDA recognized the cholesterol lowering effect of oat β-glucan.
• In Europe, several health claim requests were submitted to the EFSA NDA Panel (Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), related to the role of β-glucans in maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations and maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight. In July 2009, the Scientific Committee issued the following statements: On the basis of the data available, the Panel concludes that a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the consumption of beta-glucans and the "reduction of blood cholesterol concentrations."
• The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: "Regular consumption of beta-glucans contributes to maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations." In order to bear the claim, foods should provide at least 3 g/d of beta-glucans from oats, oat bran, barley, barley bran, or mixtures of non-processed beta-glucans.
• In November 2011, the EU Commission published its decision in favour of oat beta-glucans with regard to Article 14 of the EC Regulation on the labelling of foodstuffs with nutrition and health claim statements permitting oat beta-glucan to be described as beneficial to health. Following the opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) the EFSA and the Regulation (EU) no. 1160/2011 of the Commission, foodstuffs through which 3 g/day of oat beta-glucan are consumed (1 g of oat beta-glucan per portion) are allowed to display the following health claim: "Oat beta-glucan reduces the cholesterol level in the blood. The lowering of the blood cholesterol level can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease."
• Wound healing and immunomodulation: In preliminary research, oat β-glucan is being studied for its potential immunomodulatory effects, anti-tumour properties, and stimulation of collagen deposition, tissue granulation, reepithelization, and macrophage infiltration in the wound healing process.

Lactoferrin: 100mg
• An iron-binding glycoprotein. Lactoferrin is a well conserved, monomeric 80-kDa single polypeptide chain glycoprotein of about 690 amino acid residues.
• A cell-secreted mediator that bridges innate and adaptive immune function in mammals. It is a pleiotropic molecule that directly assists in the influence of presenting cells for the development of T-helper cell polarization.
• Immune responses are designed to interact with the environment to protect the host against pathogenic invaders, conferring a state of health through effective elimination of infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) and modulation of systemic responses comprising host immune surveillance.
• Recent research has identified Lactoferrin, a member of the transferrin family of iron binding glycoproteins, as a critical component in mediation of immune response, especially for coordinated interactions between innate and adaptive components and associated responses.
• Engagement of innate components leads to triggering of signal pathways to promote inflammation, ensuring that invading pathogens remain in check while the specific immune response is either generated or upregulated. Lactoferrin is a key molecule involved in these processes.
• The immune system protects the body from potentially harmful environmental stimuli through recognition and responding with multiple immunological reactions. Myeloid cells, including the highly phagocytic, motile poly-morpho-nuclear neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells, provide a first line of defense against most pathogens. There is emerging evidence that many mediators originating from the myeloid lineage revive immune homeostasis in most insult-induced metabolic disparity. Thus, the utility of such immune mediators represents a novel approach that depends on immune-potentiation, immunosuppression, or induction of immunological tolerance.
• Lactoferrin is one of these mediators that naturally bridge the innate and adaptive immune functions by regulating target cell response, including those involved in oxidative stress and systemic inflammatory responses. It is also recognized as a significant contributor in regulation of antigen presentation and development of productive T helper cell response.
• While Lactoferrin is found primarily in mucosal secretions, synthesized by epithelial cells, it is also present in neutrophilic granules. Lactoferrin is considered a first-line defence protein involved in protection against a multitude of microbial infections and prevention of systemic inflammation.
• Lactoferrin also exhibits direct effects on pathogens, These include bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects, the former being a result of iron sequestration by Lactoferrin and the latter dealing with Lactoferrin capabilities to bind lipopolysaccharide.
• The ability of Lactoferrin to bind large quantities of iron also provides protection against pathogens and their metabolites by enhancing phagocytosis and cell adherence and controlling the release of proinflammatory cytokines.
• While suppressing microbial growth, Lactoferrin also exerts direct first-line defence activity through its significant impact on the development of adaptive immune responses. Sequestration of iron by Lactoferrin reduces insult-induced oxidative stress, thus altering the magnitude and specific production of cytokines.
• Lactoferrin has a profound modulatory action on the adaptive immune system by promoting the maturation of T-cell precursors into competent helper cells and by the differentiation of immature B-cells into efficient antigen presenting cells. In addition, Lactoferrin augments the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to antigens, leading to a strong induction of cell-mediated immunity in mice.
• Lactoferrin is a key element to combat excessive inflammation and direct host immune function to protect against overaggressive microbial insults. Found in exocrine secretions, Lactoferrin serves as a natural regulator of host defence. It is one of the first factors released by neutrophils upon encounter with pathogens and contributes to innate activation by directing development of adaptive responses. In combination with its historical role in limiting microbial proliferation and functioning as a direct microbicidal agent, Lactoferrin plays a central role in host immunity. Lactoferrin has the ability to modulate cytokine production from monocytes, as well as from lymphocytes, during activation from foreign stimuli or mitogens. In addition, along with co-stimulatory mediators, Lactoferrin can modulate chemokine recognition and lymphocyte migratory potential. This, coupled with the ability to affect production and activity of reactive oxygen species, allows Lactoferrin to serve as a unique regulator to a wide array of responses, including those involved in septic shock (e.g. systemic inflammatory response syndrome), inflammation, and subsequent development of disease related pathologies.

• Quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability.
• Quercetin, a flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, has unique biological properties that may improve mental/physical performance and reduce infection risk. These properties form the basis for potential benefits to overall health and disease resistance, including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and psychostimulant activities, as well as the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability, and to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, there is a pressing need for well-designed clinical trials to evaluate this novel dietary supplement further.
• Quercetin is categorized as a flavonol, one of the six subclasses of flavonoid compounds. The name has been used since 1857, and is derived from quercetum (oak forest), after Quercus. It is a naturally occurring polar auxin transport inhibitor.
• The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature for quercetin is 3, 3′, 4′, 5, 7-pentahydroxyflvanone. This means that quercetin has an OH group attached at positions 3, 5, 7, 3′, and 4′.
• Quercetin (C15H10O7) is an ‘A-Glycone’, lacking an attached sugar. It is a brilliant citron yellow needle crystal and entirely insoluble in cold water, poorly soluble in hot water, but quite soluble in alcohol and lipids. The attached glycosyl group can change the solubility, absorption, and in vivo effects. As a general rule of thumb, the presence of a glycosyl group (quercetin glycoside)(eb™LactoImmuneQ : eb™LIQ) results in increased water solubility compared to quercetin aglycone.
• A quercetin-glycoside (eb™LIQ) is unique by the attached glycosyl group. Generally, the term quercetin should be used to describe the aglycone only; however, the name is occasionally used to refer to quercetin-type molecules, including its glycosides in research and the supplement industry.
• Dietary Sources of Quercetin: Variety of foods including apples, berries, Brassica vegetables, capers, grapes, onions, shallots, tea, and tomatoes, as well as many seeds, nuts, flowers, barks, and leaves. Quercetin is also found in medicinal botanicals, including Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum, and Sambucus canadensis. In red onions, higher concentrations of quercetin occur in the outermost rings and in the part closest to the root, the latter being the part of the plant with the highest concentration. One study found that organically grown tomatoes had 79% more quercetin than chemically grown fruit. Quercetin is present in various kinds of honey from different plant sources.
• In the determined food, the highest concentration is 234 mg/100 g of edible portion in capers (raw), the lowest concentration is 2 mg/100 g of edible portion in black or green tea (Camellia Sinensis).
• Absorption, Bioavailability and Metabolism of Quercetin: Quercetin in humans suggested very poor oral bioavailability after a single oral dose (~2%). The estimated absorption of quercetin-glucoside ranges from 3% to 17% in healthy individuals receiving 100 mg. The relatively low bioavailability of quercetin may be attributed to its low absorption, extensive metabolism and/or rapid elimination.
• Absorption: Quercetin glycosides might be differently absorbed based on the type of sugar attached. Available evidence indicates that quercetin glucosides are far better absorbed than its rutinosides (the major quercetin glycoside in tea). The glucosides are efficiently hydrolysed in the small intestine by beta-glucosidases to the aglycone form, much of which is then absorbed. Quercetin glucuronic acid and its sulfuric acid derivatives were more easily absorbed than quercetin. Conjugated forms of its glycosides are better absorbed than quercetin. Purified quercetin glucosides are capable of interacting with the sodium dependent glucose transport receptors in the mucosal epithelium and may therefore be absorbed by the small intestine in vivo.
• Continuous intake of diet containing quercetin accumulated in blood and significantly increased quercetin concentration in plasma, which was significantly correlated to its dietary content. Kidney is a major organ of excretion. Quercetin concentration in urine increased with the increasing dose.
• Human subjects can absorb significant amounts of quercetin from food or supplements, and elimination is quite slow, with a reported half-life ranging from 11 to 28 h. The average terminal half-life of quercetin is 3.5 h. The total recovery of C-quercetin in urine, faeces and exhaled air is highly variable, depending on the individual. A high amount of absorbed quercetin is extensively metabolized and eventually eliminated by the lungs. Additional literature suggests that isoquercetin (glycosylated quercetin) is more completely absorbed than quercetin in the aglycone form, and that the simultaneous ingestion of quercetin with vitamin C, folate and additional flavonoids improves bioavailability (as in eb™LIQ).
• Anti-Inflammation and Promotion of Immunity: Quercetin was reported as a long lasting anti-inflammatory substance that possesses strong anti-inflammatory capacities. It is known to possess both mast cell stabilizing and gastrointestinal cyto-protective activity. It can also play a modulating, biphasic and regulatory action on inflammation and immunity. Additionally, quercetin has an immunosuppressive effect on dendritic cells function.
• Mechanism of Action: It inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production in macrophages, and LPS-induced IL-8 production in lung A549 cells. Moreover, in glial cells it was even shown that quercetin can inhibit LPS-induced mRNA levels of TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-1α, this effect of quercetin resulted in a diminished apoptotic neuronal cell death induced by microglial activation.
• Quercetin inhibits production of inflammation-producing enzymes (cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX)). It limits LPS-induced inflammation via inhibition of Src- and Syk-mediated phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (PI3K)-(p85) tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4)/MyD88/PI3K complex formation that limits activation of downstream signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 cells. It can also inhibit FcεRI-mediated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tryptase and histamine from human umbilical cord blood-derived cultured mast cells (hCBMCs); this inhibition appears to involve in inhibition of calcium influx, as well as phospho-protein kinase C (PKC).
• The study of quercetin against H2O2-induced inflammation showed the protective effects of quercetin against inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and indicated that the effect was mediated via the downregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and CD80 expression.
• Quercetin significantly induces the gene expression as well as the production of Th-1 derived interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and down-regulates Th-2 derived interleukin 4 (IL-4) by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Furthermore, quercetin treatment increased the phenotypic expression of IFN-γ cells and decreased IL-4 positive cells by flow cytometry analysis, which corroborate with protein secretion and gene expression studies. These results suggest that the beneficial immuno-stimulatory effects of quercetin may be mediated through the induction of Th-1 derived cytokine, IFN-γ, and inhibition of Th-2 derived cytokine, IL-4 .
• Quercetin is able to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases, which are normally inhibited by plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) in human dermal fibroblasts. IL-1-stimulated IL-6 production from human mast cells is regulated by biochemical pathways distinct from IgE-induced degranulation, and quercetin can block both IL-6 secretion and two key signal transduction steps involved.
• Quercetin is known to possess both mast cell stabilizing and gastrointestinal cytoprotective activity. Quercetin has a direct regulatory effect on basic functional properties of immune cells which may be mediated by the extracellular regulated kinase 2 (Erk2) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signal pathway in human mitogen-activated PBMC and purified T lymphocytes.
• Quercetin has shown a biphasic behaviour in basophils at nanomolar doses and hence its action on cells involved in allergic inflammation. Quercetin affects immunity and inflammation by acting mainly on leukocytes and targeting many intracellular signalling kinases and phosphatases, enzymes and membrane proteins are often crucial for a cellular specific function.
• Clinical Studies: Diet supplementation with combinations of resveratrol, pterostilbene, morin hydrate, quercetin, δ-tocotrienol, riboflavin, and nicotinic acid reduces cardiovascular risk factors in humans when used as nutritional supplements with, or without, other dietary changes in healthy seniors and hypercholesterolemic subjects.
• As a widespread flavonoid, quercetin is a safe and dietary supplement based on its broad range of biological effects in animal. The results of these effects are not consistent, however, and the outcomes need to be carefully evaluated, as they are dependent on the type of subject and their level of health. Taken together, we know definitively that a quercetin glycoside is much more efficient than other forms of quercetin. In the majority of the literature, we find references to the benefits of prolonged supplementation with quercetin.
• The future challenge is to investigate optimal benefits of quercetin, especially to the recommendation for the protracted intake.

Holy Basil Supplementation outcome measurements:
• Healthy blood glucose levels
• Better lipid profile
• Maintained blood pressure
• Strong immune response
• Improving neurocognitive changes
• Better mood
• Helps in fatigue
• Healthy serum uric acid levels
• Helps in diabetes’ secondary symptoms
• Enhanced immune response
• Increased immune response with increased Natural Killer (NK) and T-helper cells in healthy adult
• Neurocognitive Effect: improvements in mood and/or cognitive function regardless of age, gender, formulation, dose, or quality of the study.