What is eb™EAGLE EYES supplement used for?
• Specially tailored for individuals at risk of oxidative injury to connective tissues, while aging & maturing through life. It helps suppressing the macular & other eye part degeneration which if=s often seen with aging; & evident in many connective tissues like cartilage & bones, including free radicals, ions & cartilages in our Eyes.
• Marigold is beneficial in case of rashes, allergies, eczema and dermatitis; pain, swelling and redness caused from muscle cramps, muscular injuries or sprains. It supports the health in & around eye inflammation and itchiness caused by conjunctivitis; and fungal infections. European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved its lipophilic and aqueous alcoholic extracts as traditional medicinal products for the treatment of minor inflammation of the skin and as an aid in the healing of minor wounds.
• Moringa is beneficial for patients / person conscious regarding cardiovascular disease, by lowering plasma lipids including triglycerides (TG), decreasing blood pressure and reducing oxidative stress; diabetes, by lowering plasma glucose, reducing insulin resistance and increasing β cell function; NAFLD, by reducing hepatic lipids, reducing liver enzymes and decreasing hepatic inflammation and cancer, by reducing DNA damage, viability of cancer cells and increasing apoptosis. Cardio protective effect increases the TC/non-HDL-C ratio following treatment.
• The positive effects of Spirulina in allergic rhinitis are based on adequate evidence but larger trials are required. It is believed that the anticancer effects of Spirulina are perhaps derived from β-carotene, a known antioxidant; however, the link between β-carotene level and carcinogenesis cannot be established as the aetiology of carcinoma is frequently multifactorial. There are some positive studies on the cholesterol lowering effects of Spirulina but larger studies are required before any definitive conclusions can be made. Finally, there are no high-level evidence trials on the role played by Spirulina in chronic fatigue and in antiviral applications. At the moment, what the literature suggests is that Spirulina is a safe food.
Recommended Daily Intake & Instructions:
• For Adults (over 18 years of age).
Product Code HB05
Product Name: EAGLE EYES
Pack Size 60 Caps packed in a HDPE bottle labelled with all relevant information.
(shape/colour) Greenish Capsule (Clear Shell) (vegicaps)
Size 60s Shape Oblong Capsule
Average Weight 700mg
Ingredients Marigold Extract Powder (C.Officinalis)(Lutein+Zeaxanthin)
Spirulina (Blue-Green Algae), Moringa Extract Powder (M.Oleifera)
Suitability Vegan Yes Vegetarian Yes
Quality Requirements All the ingredients meet the requirements of USP/NF, BP, EP, BHP pharmacopoeia or supplier specifications
Expiration Period Three years from date of manufacture
Storage Store in a cool dry place, at or below 25°C / room temperature. Keep away from heat or direct sunlight. Keep out of sight and reach of children.
Caution Seek professional advice before taking this supplement if you are on prescribed medication, pregnant or breastfeeding.
Disclaimer Use product according to directions stated on the pack.
Food supplements should not be used as a substitute for a varied and balanced diet and healthy lifestyle.
Please check with your primary healthcare physician before taking this supplement if you suffer from a medical condition, are on prescribed medication, are pregnant or breastfeeding or suffer from food allergies.
Food supplements are not intended to treat or prevent any disease.
Do not use after the expiry date.
• One / Two capsules daily; an hour at least; prior or after any meal.
• Stay extra hydrated when on these (or any) capsules.
• For external use, can be applied to the skin as part of a daily skincare routine
• Stop usage & See a doctor is case of any issue, allergy or difficulty in stomach/abdomen.
• If on ANY other medication(s), do not consume these capsules.
• Consume frequent water daily when on these capsules.
• Children & Adolescents; Consume under guidance of a legal guardian / parent AND after consulting medical professional(s).
MECHANISM OF ACTION
What is Eagle Eyes capsules food supplement & its mechanism?
A unique formulation developed by EDI BERYL LTD, based on individual food profile & benefit of its ingredients; Marigold extract, Spirulina Extract & Moringa Extract.
1. Anti-inflammatory activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis Linn. & its possible mechanism of action: Calendula officinalis flower extract possessed significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan and dextran-induced acute paw oedema. Oral administration of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight Calendula extract produced significant inhibition (50.6 and 65.9% respectively) in paw oedema of animals induced by carrageenan and 41.9 and 42.4% respectively with inflammation produced by dextran. In chronic anti-inflammatory model using formalin, administration of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight Calendula extract produced an inhibition of 32.9 and 62.3% respectively compared to controls. TNF-alpha production by macrophage culture treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found to be significantly inhibited by Calendula extract. Moreover, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL- 1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma and acute phase protein, C- reactive protein (CRP) in mice produced by LPS injection were inhibited significantly by the extract. LPS induced cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) levels in mice spleen were also found to be inhibited by extract treatment. The results showed that potent anti-inflammatory response of C. officinalis extract may be mediated by the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and Cox-2 and subsequent prostaglandin synthesis.
2. In vitro studies to evaluate the wound healing properties of Calendula officinalis extracts: Calendula officinalis flower extracts have a long-lasting tradition in ethnopharmacology. Currently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved its lipophilic and aqueous alcoholic extracts as traditional medicinal products for the treatment of minor inflammation of the skin and as an aid in the healing of minor wounds. The purpose of this study was to analyse the molecular mechanism of the wound healing effects of Calendula extracts, which may reflect the phytomedicines currently used in the market. The effect of three different extracts from Calendula flowers (hexane, ethanolic, aqueous) on the inflammatory phase of wound healing was studied in human immortalized keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay on NF-κB-DNA binding, qRT-PCR and ELISA experiments were performed. The effect of Calendula extracts on the new tissue formation phase of wound healing was evaluated by studying the migratory properties of these extracts, triterpene mixtures and single compounds in human immortalized keratinocytes using the scratch assay. Finally, the effect of the extracts on the formation of granulation tissue in wound healing was studied using bacterial collagenase isolated from Clostridium histolyticum and the determination of soluble collagen in the supernatant of human dermal fibroblasts. The n-hexanic and the ethanolic extracts from Calendula flowers influence the inflammatory phase by activating the transcription factor NF-κB and by increasing the amount of the chemokine IL-8, both at the transcriptional and protein level, in human immortalized keratinocytes. The migration of the keratinocytes during the new tissue formation phase was only marginally influenced in the scratch assay. However, it can be assumed that the granulation tissue was affected, as the ethanolic extract inhibited the activity of collagenase in vitro and enhanced the amount of collagen in the supernatant of human dermal fibroblasts. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the wound healing properties of the traditional medicinal plant Calendula officinalis. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate which of its known constituents are responsible for these effects.
3. Action of Calendula officinalis essence on bone preservation after the extraction: Calendula officinalis is a phytodrug used as analgesic, antiseptic and wound healing agent due to its collagenogenic effect, which is why it is a convenient and affordable treatment that promotes alveolar bone preservation after tooth extraction in vivo. The aim of this study was to use Calendula officinalis during and after tooth extraction to determine its ability to preserve bone after this procedure. We established two groups matched by age, gender and position of the third molar. We used with patients on the experimental group Calendula officinalis diluted 10% as an irrigant during surgical extraction of third molars. We performed the conventional way with the control group irrigating with saline solution. Subsequently, both groups continued to make mouthwash for a week with the irrigating agent. Every week for a month, each patient underwent periapical radiography, out of which we took measurements of alveolar ridges and depth of alveolar bone, which were compared. There is statistically significant evidence to state that Calendula officinalis favourably affects bone preservation after extraction.
4. Therapeutic effectiveness of a Calendula officinalis extract in venous leg ulcer healing: Non-healing venous leg ulcers (VLUs) have a significant effect on patients' quality of life and substantially increase expenditures in health-care systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the Calendula officinalis extract, in the treatment of VLUs. Patients treated with Calendula officinalis extract (n=38) and control patients (n=19) were evaluated every two weeks for 30 weeks or until their ulcers healed. Assessments included determination of the wound area by planimetry, infection control, and evaluation of the clinical aspects of the wounds. The percentage of healing velocity per week (%HVw), taking the initial area at baseline into account, was also determined. The proportion of the treatment patients achieving complete epithelialisation was 72 % and 32 % in the treatment and control groups, respectively. The average healing time was approximately 12 weeks in the treatment group and 25 % in control patients. Patients with ulcers treated with Calendula officinalis extract had a significant 4-fold increase in percentage healing velocity per week, 7.4 %, compared with 1.7 % in the control group. No adverse events were observed during the Calendula officinalis extract treatment. Our findings indicate that Calendula officinalis extract is an effective treatment for venous leg ulcers referenced.
5. Calendula ﬂower is used to prevent muscle spasms, start menstrual periods, and reduce fever. It is also used for treating sore throat and mouth, menstrual cramps, cancer, and stomach and duodenal ulcers. Calendula has also been used for measles, smallpox, and jaundice. Calendula is applied to the skin to reduce pain and swelling (inﬂammation) and to treat poorly healing wounds and leg ulcers. It is also applied to the skin (used topically) for nosebleeds, varicose veins, haemorrhoids, inﬂammation of the rectum (proctitis), ear infection, gum disease, peeling lips (exfoliative cheilitis), diaper rash, vaginal yeast infection, and inﬂammation of the lining of the eyelid (conjunctivitis).
6. Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for: 1) Anal tears (anal ﬁssures); Early research suggests that that applying calendula to the affected area may reduce pain in people with anal tears who do not respond to treatment with sitz baths and the medication nifedipine. 2) Diabetic foot ulcers: Early research shows that using a calendula spray in addition to National Institutes of Health /U.S. National Library of Medicine standard care and hygiene might prevent infection and decrease odour in people with long-term foot ulcer from diabetes. 3) Diaper rash: Some early research suggests that applying a calendula ointment to the skin for 10 days improves diaper rash compared to aloe gel. But other early research shows that applying calendula cream does not improve diaper rash as effectively as bentonite solution. 4) Peeling lips (exfoliative cheilitis): Early research shows that using calendula ointment/extract application for 15 days might help stop peeling lips. 5) Gum inﬂammation: Early research shows that rinsing the mouth with a speciﬁc calendula tincture for 6 months might decrease plaque, gum inﬂammation, and bleeding by 10% to 18% compared to using water to rinse. Other early research shows that rinsing the mouth with a combination mouthwash containing calendula, rosemary, and ginger for 2 weeks decreases plaque, gum inﬂammation, and bleeding compared to placebo mouthwash. In fact, it the combination mouthwash seems to work as effectively as chlorhexidine mouthwash. 6) Insect repellent: Applying calendula essential oil to the skin does not seem to repel mosquitoes as effectively as applying DEET. 7) Ear infections (otitis media): Early research shows that applying a speciﬁc product that contains mullein, garlic, calendula, and St. John’s wort to the ear for 3 days reduces ear pain in children and teenagers with ear infections. 8) Pressure ulcers: Early research shows that using a speciﬁc calendula product might improve the healing of long-term pressure ulcers. 9) Skin inﬂammation due to radiation therapy (radiation dermatitis): Early research suggests that applying calendula ointment on the skin might reduce radiation dermatitis in people receiving radiation therapy for breast cancer. However, other early research shows that using a calendula cream is no different than petroleum jelly for reducing radiation dermatitis. 10) Thinning of the wall of the vagina (vaginal atrophy): Early research suggests that applying a gel containing calendula, Lactobacillus sporogenes, isoﬂavones, and lactic acid to the vagina for 4 weeks reduces symptoms of vaginal atrophy such as vaginal itching, burning, dryness, and pain during intercourse. 11) Vaginal yeast infection: Early research shows that applying calendula cream inside the vagina for 7 days does not treat yeast infections as effectively as using clotrimazole cream. 12) Others: Haemorrhoids, Muscle spasms, Nosebleeds, Promoting menstruation, treating mouth and throat soreness, varicose veins.
Special precautions & warnings:
1. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Don’t take calendula by mouth if you are pregnant. It is LIKELY UNSAFE. There is a concern that it might cause a miscarriage. It’s best to avoid topical use as well until more is known. Calendula may cause an allergic reaction in people who are sensitive to the Asteraceae/Compositae family. Members of this family include ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, daisies, and many others. If you have allergies, be sure to check with your healthcare provider before taking calendula. Surgery: Calendula might cause too much drowsiness if combined with medications used during and after surgery. Stop taking calendula at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
2. Interactions with medications: Sedative medications (CNS depressants) Calendula might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking calendula along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness. Some sedative medications include clonazepam, lorazepam, phenobarbital, zolpidem, and others. Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?
3. Herbs and supplements that cause sleepiness and drowsiness Calendula might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Taking it with other herbs and supplements that have this same effect might cause too much sleepiness. Some of these include 5-HTP, calamus, California poppy, catnip, hops, Jamaican dogwood, kava, St. John's wort, skullcap, valerian, yerba mansa, and others. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
4. Inﬂuence/impact of lutein complex (marigold ﬂower and wolfberry) on visual function with early age-related macular degeneration subjects: A randomized clinical trial: LC was provided by Standard Foods Corporation, Taipei, Taiwan. Lutein and zeaxanthin were extracted from a commercially prepared (lyophilized) marigold ﬂower and wolfberry to prepare LC. Each serving (60 mL) contained 12 mg of lutein, 2 mg of zeaxanthin, 7 g of carbohydrate, 1 g of fat and 10 mg of sodium. In conclusion, daily supplementation with LC at a dose of 12mg of lutein and 2 mg of zeaxanthin can remarkably ameliorate the antioxidant enzyme activity and plasma total antioxidant capacity by increasing their concentration in serum, which in turn improved the levels of OCI, MPOD by positively improving macular density as well as lowering BCVA, IOP and PSR. In future, the precise mechanisms by which lutein and zeaxanthin protect the eye are needed to be addressed in both early and end-stage AMD patients. Moreover, a comparative study of both lutein and zeaxanthin in a dose-dependent manner needs to be carried out.
5. Chemicals found in Marigold: Calendulaglycosides A (A, A6OMethyleaster, A6OnButylester), Calendulaglycosides B (B, B6OnButylester), Calendulaglycosides C (C, C6OMethyleaster, C6OnButylester), Calendulaglycosides D, Calendulaglycosides D2, Calendulaglycosides F (F, F6OMethyleaster, F6OnButylester), Ψ-Taraxasterol, Faradiol, Heliantriol A/A1, Heliantriol B6/B1/B2, Heliantriol C, Arnidiol, Calendic Acid, Officinoside A, Officinoside B, Officinoside C, Officinoside D, α-Amyrin, Ursadiol, Rutin, Quercetin & many others.
1. Bioactive Components in Moringa Oleifera(MO) Leaves Protect against Chronic Disease: In summary, there are a number of animal studies documenting the effects of MO leaves in protecting against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, NAFLD, Alzheimer’s, hypertension and others, due the actions of the bioactive components in preventing lipid accumulation, reducing insulin resistance and inflammation. Additional studies in humans, including clinical trials are needed to confirm these effects of MO on chronic diseases. In addition, some studies have found that the compounds in MO may also protect against Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. A summary of the effects of the bioactive component of MO leaves in protecting against these conditions is shown in Figure 1 (Protective effects of MO leaves against chronic diseases: cardiovascular disease, by lowering plasma lipids including triglycerides (TG), decreasing blood pressure and reducing oxidative stress; diabetes, by lowering plasma glucose, reducing insulin resistance and increasing β cell function; NAFLD, by reducing hepatic lipids, reducing liver enzymes and decreasing hepatic inflammation and cancer, by reducing DNA damage, viability of cancer cells and increasing apoptosis.
2. An Investigation of the Antioxidant Capacity in Extracts from Moringa Oleifera Plants Grown in Jamaica: Moringa Oleifera: Nutritional goldmine for tropical areas due to its nutritional content. Moringa has long been a part of Ayurvedic medicine. All parts of the Moringa plant are edible, with leaves and pods used most frequently. The leaves of the plant are utilized as a nutritional supplement to boost the immune system as well as energy levels, and are known to have anti-inﬂammatory as well as antioxidant properties. Moringa could potentially be used to improve the clinical condition of persons with oxidative stress conditions such as sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Reactive oxidative species (ROS) can potentially damage cells destabilizing the cell integrity by reacting with cellular components. Antioxidant components are designed to reduce ROS. The body produces ROS as a part of its normal metabolic processes and consequently has biological mechanisms to counteract oxidation. In healthy people, the antioxidant system usually restores balance. People with SCA experience a relatively higher oxidant load due increased frequency of erythrocyte destruction (which results in excessive free heme, a potential oxidant), increased metabolic rate which in turn increases the production of oxidants.
3. Therapeutic Potential of Moringa Oleifera Leaves in Chronic Hyperglycaemia and Dyslipidaemia: Conclusion and Perspectives Collectively, the studies described in this review provide compelling, albeit very preliminary, experimental evidence of a therapeutic potential of M. Oleifera leaves in chronic hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia. Leaf extraction solvents determine the nature and the relative concentrations of bioactive or medicinal ingredients found in final galenic formulations (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2003). Evaluation of the phytotherapy was often restricted to a narrow set of parameters of disease. For examples, most studies of the anti-diabetic effects were limited to measures of FPG and PPPG levels. Fasting and post-OGTT insulin levels were almost never examined to verify whether the treatment improved the ability of the endocrine pancreas to produce and secrete this hormone in response to elevated blood glucose. Insulin clamp studies would have clarified whether the treatment increased tissue sensitivity to the hormone. Since the medication was administered p.o., measures of plasma levels of incretins and other enterohormones would have given insights on how GIT physiology is affected by the treatment. In the same vein, it is unclear whether the hypocholesterolemic effect of the therapy was associated with repressed de novo cholesterol biosynthesis (a statin-like effect), increased hepatic cholesterol clearance (statin-like or anti-PCSK9-like effects) or increased intestinal excretion. It might be interesting to find the physiological basis of the cardio protective increase of the TC/non-HDL-C ratio following treatment. A more extensive analysis on circulating biochemical markers of inflammation would be justified, as the balance of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines could influence the course of both diabetes and atherosclerosis. Besides a rationalized investigation of the therapeutic effect of M. Oleifera leaves, it is possible to conduct an unbiased search for the affected physiological pathways. This could be achieved by globally comparing tissues or fluids of untreated and treated animals or humans, using the powerful techniques of systems biology, the so-called “omics” (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), combined with the equally powerful algorithms of modern bioinformatics (Zhang et al., 2010). Further exploration of the potentials and the eventual use of M. Oleifera therapy in humans will require that reference standards be set for its cultivation, the collection of its parts, as well as for their final conditioning under good agricultural and collection practices (GACP). Such guidelines, specifically directed toward medicinal plants have been defined by the WHO (2003). Furthermore, when the pharmacological basis of the therapeutic effects on a particular pathology is rationally well circumscribed, standardized assays should be required to evaluate all galenic lots for the relevant properties. For example, on the basis of current knowledge, it would indicated that the content in fibres, phytosterols as well in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities be evaluated and documented in M. Oleifera galenic formulations destined to the treatment of atherosclerosis or diabetes. The shelf life of these properties under specified storage conditions should also be established. In conclusion, based on the available experimental evidence, M. Oleifera leaf powder holds some therapeutic potential for chronic hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. However, before it is advocated in any formulation for the treatment of these metabolic disorders in humans, state-of-the art clinical studies must be conducted to establish the consistency of its medicinal efficacy and the safest modalities of its administration. Conflict of Interest Statement: “The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.”
4. Mineral Macro-Nutrients, Micro-Nutrients and Other Elements in Leaves of Malunggay Plant (Moringa Oleifera): To some extent, this initiative confirmed & strengthened the earlier reports on the high leaf nutrient content of the plant, particularly Fe, Ca, K, S and N. Many elements such as Fe, Mn, Cu, B and Zn are essential at low concentrations.
5. Disease Treatment and Prevention: The benefits for the treatment or prevention of disease or infection that may accrue from either dietary or topical administration of Moringa preparations (e.g. extracts, decoctions, poultices, creams, oils, emollients, salves, powders, porridges) are not quite so well known. Two recent papers that do an excellent job of contrasting the dilemma of balancing evidence from complementary and alternative medicine (e.g. traditional medicine, tribal lore, oral histories and anecdotes) with the burden of proof required in order to make sound scientific judgments on the efficacy of these traditional cures (139,155). Clearly much more research is justified, but just as clearly this will be a highly fruitful field of endeavour for both basic and applied researchers over the next decade.
Widespread claims of the medicinal effectiveness of various Moringa tree preparations have encouraged the author and his colleagues at The Johns Hopkins University to further investigate some of these possibilities. A plethora of traditional medicine references attest to its curative power, and scientific validation of these popular uses is developing to support at least some of the claims. Moringa preparations have been cited in the scientific literature as having antibiotic, antitrypanosomal, hypotensive, antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, and hypoglycemic activities as well as having considerable efficacy in water purification by flocculation, sedimentation, antibiosis and even reduction of Schistosome cercariae titer.
1. Spirulina in Clinical Practice: Evidence-Based Human Applications: Conclusions:
a. The positive effects of Spirulina in allergic rhinitis are based on adequate evidence but larger trials are required.
b. It is believed that the anticancer effects of Spirulina are perhaps derived from β-carotene, a known antioxidant; however, the link between β-carotene level and carcinogenesis cannot be established as the aetiology of carcinoma is frequently multifactorial.
c. There are some positive studies on the cholesterol lowering effects of Spirulina but larger studies are required before any definitive conclusions can be made.
d. Finally, there are no high-level evidence trials on the role played by Spirulina in chronic fatigue and in antiviral applications.
e. At the moment, what the literature suggests is that Spirulina is a safe food supplement without significant side-effects but its role as a drug remains to be seen.
2. Antioxidant, Immunomodulating, and Microbial-Modulating Activities of the Sustainable and Ecofriendly Spirulina: Conclusion:
a. The concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses (by Nrf2 and NF-kB pathways), suggested by in vitro and animal studies, requires more confirmation in humans.
b. It has been suggested that the temporary priming effect on the responses of peripheral Th1, Th2, and B cells to antigenic stimuli could be related to a proinflammatory effect of Immulina.
c. However, the effects on cytokines and on lymphocytes' proliferation are contrasting, depending on age, gender, and body weight differences. In this context, ageing, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are associated not only to chronic low grade inflammation, but also to immune impairment (recurrent infection and low vaccine efficacy). Therefore the increased immune response to antigenic stimuli could be protective in elderly.
d. Spirulina has hypo-lipidemic, hypoglycaemic, and antihypertensive properties, useful in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome. In this context, the alteration of gut microbiota is common in elderly, obese and subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
e. From that, the microbial-modulating activities of Spirulina suggest that the association Spirulina and probiotics could represent a new symbiotic (eb®Spirulina+VitaminC+Acidophilus), maintaining and/or restoring the homeostasis at level of gut microbiota.
f. Human intervention studies are required for confirmation of this hypothesis.
g. Furthermore, Spirulina improves oxidative stress markers and NK activity in healthy subjects and CD4+ count in HIV+ patients.
h. However, among bioactive molecules from Spirulina; only Immulina has been tested in humans. Therefore the role of bioactive molecules from Spirulina for human applications requires further studies.
i. Moreover, despite the fact that Spirulina might represent a functional food with potential beneficial effects on human health, the human interventions used supplements.
j. Although the tested doses (1–20 g/day) in these studies were not greater than the maximum acceptable percentage (10%) of Spirulina in functional foods, no data are available on the efficacy of Spirulina containing foods. Therefore, the healthy effect of food containing Spirulina should be further evaluated.
k. Besides, previous studies indicate that some antioxidant and immunological markers are sensitive to stimuli that affect the mood of the individual. In particular, the salivary TAC increased 30 minutes after the vision of a comical video, and pleasant emotions increase the salivary IgA and cortisol.
l. In this context different species of Spirulina, possibly having different biological effects, showed different acceptability. Therefore, the study of the relationship between liking and markers of antioxidant and immune status should be considered in humans studies.
3. A REVIEW ON CULTURE, PRODUCTION AND USE OF SPIRULINA AS FOOD FOR HUMANS AND FEEDS FOR DOMESTIC ANIMALS AND FISH: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
a. Conclusions: Spirulina appears to have considerable potential for development, especially as a small-scale crop for nutritional enhancement, livelihood development and environmental mitigation.
b. it provides an easily digestible high (c. 60 percent) protein product with high levels of β-carotene, vitamin B12, iron and trace minerals and the rare essential fatty acid γ-linolenic acid (GLA). In addition, it has no obvious negative cultural or religious issues associated with its consumption.
4. Spirulina is a totally natural type of vegetable plant that grows in the pure lakes of America and Africa. Spirulina contains up to 65 % protein and has a wide range of nutrients, making it a useful way to supplement the diet.
5. What is Spirulina for?
a. Helps with weight loss
b. Rich in antioxidants
c. Boosts energy and cellular health
d. Helps maintain the healthy joints
e. Provides optimum nutrition
f. Enhances natural cleansing and detoxification
g. Supports cardiovascular function and healthy cholesterol levels
h. Helps strengthen the immune system
i. Improves gastrointestinal and digestive health
6. Spirulina may be of benefit to:
a. People on weight management problems
b. Those following a diet plan
d. People with compromised immune systems
e. Those who are prone to illness
f. People who wish to maintain a healthy digestive tract
g. Those experiencing painful, inflamed joints
h. People who wish to maintain general wellbeing
7. Spirulina's Nutritional Analysis
a. Proteins: The blue-green algae, and Spirulina in particular, have a primitive structure with few starch storage cells and cell membrane proliferation, but rich amounts of ribosomes, the cellular bodies that manufacture protein. This particular arrangement of cellular components allows for rapid photosynthesis and formation of proteins. The lack of hard cellular walls assures that Spirulina protein is rapidly and easily assimilated by consuming organisms.
b. Spirulina is approximately 65 to 71 percent protein, depending on growing conditions. These proteins are biologically complete, which means they provide all eight essential amino acids in the proper ratios. Most plant foods are not complete proteins because they usually lack one or more amino acids.
c. Unfortunately, the body cannot store amino acids in anticipation of deficient ones eventually arriving in subsequent meals. To synthesize protein for the body's repair and maintenance, all dietary protein factors must be present simultaneously or the amino acids are wasted.
d. Furthermore, even if complete protein is consumed, digestive difficulties can prevent assimilation of all needed elements. Spirulina provides all the required amino acids, and in a form that is five times easier to digest than meat or soy protein.
e. These eight essential amino acids are found in Spirulina:
i. ISOLEUCINE (4.130/o): Required for optimal growth, intelligence development and nitrogen equilibrium in the body Used to synthesize other non-essential amino acids.
ii. LEUCINE (5.8001o): Stimulator of brain function, increases muscular energy levels.
iii. LYSINE (4.000/o): Building block of blood antibodies, strengthens circulatory system and maintains normal growth of cells.
iv. METHIONINE (2.170/o): Vital lipotropic (fat and lipid metabolizing) amino acid that maintains liver health. An anti-stress factor, it calms the nerves.
v. PHENYLALANINE (3.950/o): Required by the thyroid gland for production of thyroxine which stimulates metabolic rate.
vi. THREONINE (4.170/o): Improves intestinal competence and digestive assimilation.
vii. TRYPTOPHANE (1.1301o): Increases utilization of B vitamins,improves nerve health and stability of the emotions. Promotes sense of calm.
viii. VALINE (6.0001o): Stimulates mental capacity and muscle coordination.
f. These are the non-essential amino acids supplied by Spirulina:
i. Spirulina supplies ten of the twelve non-essential amino acids. "Non-essential" does not mean that these amino acids are not needed by the body, but merely indicates that the body can synthesize them itself if it needs to do so, provided the appropriate nutritional building blocks are available. Nevertheless, the body is better served if these excellent protein components are readily and totally available in dietary sources, since all the amino acids must be on hand as the cells manufacture enzymes, proteins, hormones, brain chemicals and the other products of metabolism. Of the thousands of biochemical substances acting and interacting in the human body, not one is derived from a vacuum; the body is ultimately dependent upon nutrient intake for all of its functions.
ii. ALANINE (5.820/o): Strengthens cellular walls.
iii. ARGININE (5.98%): Important to male sexual health as seminal fluid is 80 percent arginine. Also helps detoxify the blood.
iv. ASPARTIC ACID (6.340/o): Aids transformation of carbohydrates into cellular energy.
v. CYSTINE (0.670/o): Aids pancreatic health, which stabilizes blood sugar and carbohydrate metabolism. Has been used to alleviate some symptoms of food allergy and intolerance.
vi. GLUTAMIC ACID (8.940/o): With glucose, one of the principal fuels for the brain cells. Has been used to reduce the craving for alcohol and stabilize mental health.
vii. GLYCINE (3.5%): Promotes energy and oxygen use in the cells.
viii. HISTIDINE (1.08%): Strengthens nerve relays, especially in the auditory organs. Has been used to reverse some cases of deafness.
ix. PROLINE (2.970/o): A precursor of glutamic acid.
x. SERINE (4.00%): Helps form the protective fatty sheaths surrounding nerve fibers.
xi. TYROSINE (4.60%): Slows aging of cells and suppresses hunger centers in the hypothalamus. Can be synthesized from phenylalanine. Involved in proper coloration of hair and skin, including protection from sunburn.
i. Although proteins are the building blocks of life, many trace minerals can profoundly effect health and metabolism.
ii. The waters Spirulina favors are so saturated with minerals deposited from ancient soils and mountains that no other plants can live there. Because Spirulina thrives in such alkaline waters, it incorporates and synthesizes many minerals and derivative compounds into its cell structure.
iii. Transformed into natural organic forms by Spirulina, minerals become chelated with amino acids and are therefore more easily assimilated by the body. Many times people have ingested large amounts of inorganic minerals without benefit to health because the body does not know what to do with these incompatible forms. In fact, evidence is accumulating that the inorganic minerals can block absorption of the organic forms, leading ultimately to mineral deficiency diseases.
iv. Spirulina contains essential minerals and trace elements absorbed from its growth medium into chelated, easily absorbed forms:
1. POTASSIUM (15,400 mg/kg): A crucial mineral that regulates body electrolyte balance. Deficiency can cause heart arrest, hypertension, adrenal exhaustion and muscular collapse.
2. CALCIUM (1,315 mg/kg): The most abundant mineral in the body, it is especially important to bone and dental health, but is also involved in neural transmissions to the muscles. Spirulina supplies about as much calcium, gram for gram, as milk.
3. ZINC (39 mg/kg): The pivot point of over thirty vital enzymatic reactions, with profound effects on mental health, skin tone, prostate function and healing capacity.
4. MAGNESIUM (1,915 mg/kg): Deficiency can lead to spasmodic muscle disorders, including cardiac irregularities. Helps assimilation of vitamin C, B vitamins and protein.
5. MANGANESE (25 mg/kg): Activates enzyme systems, along with zinc. Promotes activity of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and helps stabilize blood sugar.
6. SELENIUM (0.40 ppm): Originally believed to be a toxic heavy metal, but now known to be necessary for health. It retards aging, harmful oxidation and free radical formation, reduces the toxic effect of carcinogens, and improves cardiac efficiency.
7. IRON (580 mg/kg): Promotes formation of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying blood pigment found in healthy red blood cells. Iron deficiency is most common among women in their reproductive years.
8. PHOSPHORUS (8,942 mg/kg): The second most abundant mineral in the human body, it is found in practically every cell. Functions with calcium to maintain bone density. Helps to digest carbohydrates and the B vitamins niacin and riboflavin.
h. Vitamins: Spirulina supplies several of the vitamins that all living beings need to carry on metabolic processes:
i. PYRIDOXINE or B6 (3 mg/kg): Involved in breakdown and assimilation of protein. Protects cardiac health, reduces edema and stabilizes female hormone levels. Dr. Carl Pfeiffer has demonstrated that B6, together with the mineral zinc, can cure some forms of schizophrenia.
ii. BIOTIN (0.4 mg/kg): An enzyme that carries CO, during certain biochemical reactions involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Also acts as a co-enzyme in the assimilation of other B-complex vitamins. Biotin is destroyed by eating raw egg whites and some kinds of raw fish.
iii. COBALAMIN or B12 (2 mg/kg): The most difficult of all vitamins to obtain from vegetable sources. Spirulina is extremely rich in this rare vitamin, containing 250 percent more than beef liver, previously thought to be nature's richest source. A single serving of Spirulina easily exceeds the Recommended Daily Allowance of 1.5 to 3 mcg daily. A B12 deficiency results in pernicious anemia, nerve degeneration, premature senility, pronounced fatigue and mental illnesses resembling schizophrenia.
iv. PANTOTHENIC ACID (11 mg/kg): The "stress" vitamin, used by the adrenal glands, along with cholesterol and vitamin C, to manufacture cortisone and other steroids in response to physical and mental stress. Deficiency encourages sensitivity to allergy, infection and degenerative diseases such as arthritis and rheumatism. Ulcers and hypoglycemia have also been associated with shortage of this vitamin.
v. FOLIC ACID (0.5 mg/kg): Essential to proper hemoglobin formation in red blood cells. Deficiency results in anemia, poor growth, skin pigmentation disorders and premature graying of the hair.
vi. INOSITOL (350 mg/kg): Vital lipotropic nutrient that sustains liver health and helps detoxify carcinogens, particularly excess female hormones. Helps normalize blood cholesterol levels. With choline, inositol is used by the liver to manufacture lecithin. Inositol is the second most abundant vitamin in the body, after niacin. Recent studies indicate that inositol, with biotin, reduces loss of scalp hair.
vii. NIACIN (118 mg/kg): Also known as nicotinic acid and niacinamide, which is an alternative form, niacin is essential to mental health. Dr. Abram Hoffer, a renowned pioneer in orthomolecular psychiatry, has completely relieved schizophrenic symptoms using niacin. The Physicians' Desk Reference, a pharmaceutical text used by doctors when prescribing medication, recognizes niacin as an effective cholesterol lowering agent.
viii. RIBOFLAVIN or B2 (40 mg/kg): The most common vitamin deficiency is that of riboflavin and results in cataracts, failing vision, watery eyes and uncontrollable eczema.
ix. THIAMINE or B 1 (55 mg/kg): A co-enzyme in the breakdown of dietary carbohydrate. Maintains levels of glucose in the blood. Deficiency results in weakness, cardiac damage, abdominal distention and poor oxygenation. Severe shortage results in death; critical toxaemia develops from un-metabolized carbohydrate fragments.
x. TOCOPHEROL or vitamin E (190 mg/kg): Spirulina contains more vitamin E per gram than pure wheat germ. This nutrient protects heart and vascular health, promotes oxygenation of cells, and retards aging.
i. Carotenoids: Some substances in plant foods are not true vitamins, but provide the precursors from which the body can then synthesize the appropriate vitamins. The carotenoid compounds of Spirulina are of this nature, since they are used to produce vitamin A. True vitamin A is found in the pre-formed state only in animal sources, such as liver. This is the form of vitamin A sometimes associated with toxicity and overdose, since it is fat-soluble and is not readily excreted from the body. In contrast, the carotenoid complexes found in vegetable foods are converted to vitamin A only as it is needed, thus minimizing the dangers of toxicity. Spirulina and other algae are a primary source of vitamin A precursors - it is from algae carotenoids that fish livers derive and concentrate vitamin A. Spirulina contains the yellow/orange pigments cryptoxanthine and beta-carotene from which vitamin A can be made. Two units of carotene will normally yield one unit of complete vitamin A, if required by the body. Spirulina contains 4,000 mg/kg carotenoids in these forms:
i. Alpha-carotene -- traces
ii. Beta-carotene -- 1,700 mg/kg
iii. Xanthophylis -- 1,000 mg/kg
iv. Cryptoxanthin -- 556 mg/kg
v. Echinenone -- 439 mg/kg
vi. Zeaxanthin -- 316 mg/kg
vii. Lutein -- 289 mg/kg
j. Enzymatic pigments: While the protein, mineral and vitamin value of Spirulina is impressive, this minute organism is also rich in pigments that are bio-chemically important to life. Without pigments, organisms could not synthesize many of the enzymes necessary for balancing metabolism.
i. Chlorophyll: The most visible pigment in Spirulina is chlorophyll, a green molecule common to plants. It releases ions when struck by the energy of sunlight. These free ions proceed to stimulate the biochemical reactions that form proteins, vitamins and sugars. Chlorophyll is sometimes called `green blood" because of its similarity to the haemoglobin molecule found in human blood cells. In fact, both are constructed of almost identical molecular structure called pyrrole rings, and both substances are chemically known as "porphyrin pigments" by scientists. The difference is that chlorophyll contains a magnesium ion at its core, while haemoglobin contains an iron molecule. Magnesium imparts a green colour to the chlorophyll molecule and is involved in synthesis of other materials, while iron gives haemoglobin a red coloration and changes the function of the porphyrin molecule to respiration and breakdown of materials. It is believed that if chlorophyll is ingested with sufficient iron, the magnesium can be displaced to yield a haemoglobin molecule. Experiments in Japan have demonstrated that Spirulina has a marked positive effect on anaemia, possibly due to the conversion of chlorophyll into haemoglobin. Of course, the high nutrient density of Spirulina, especially the blood-building vitamins B12 and folic acid and the amino acids, are also useful in treating cases of anaemia. Chlorophyll has other positive benefits to the body. It increases peristaltic action and thus relieves constipation, and also normalizes the secretion of digestive acids. It soothes the inflammation and reduces the excess pepsin secretion associated with gastric ulcers. During World War 11, the drying action of chlorophyll and its antiseptic qualities made it a common first-aid measure to prevent festering of wounds. In addition, chlorophyll soothes swelling and promotes granulation, the process that regenerates new tissue over injuries. Chlorophyll appears to promote regeneration of damaged liver cells, and also increases circulation to all the organs by dilating blood vessels. In the heart, chlorophyll aids in transmission of nerve impulses that control contraction. The heart rate is slowed, yet each contraction is increased in power, thus improving the overall efficiency of cardiac work.
ii. Phycocyanin: The pigment which gives Spirulina its blue cast is phycocyanin, found in concentrations of about 7 percent, compared to the I percent chlorophyll content most commonly found. Phycocyanin is related to the human pigment bilirubin, which is important to healthy liver function and digestion of amino acids.
iii. Porphyrin: Another important pigment is porphyrin, a red compound that forms the active nucleus of hemoglobin. Related to this structure is the polypyrrole molecule of B12, which is essential to the formation of healthy red blood cells.
iv. These and several lesser pigments such as phycoerythrin, tetrapyrrole, phytonadione and the carotenoids are not just the "color" of living organisms, but are used to carry on metabolic processes throughout the body. Without them, enzymatic reactions would be reduced until cellular disintegration occurred.
k. Fats, sugars, salts and calories:It is probably hard to imagine that a concentrated source of nutrients such as Spirulina is not also loaded with fats, starches and calories. Amazingly, Spirulina is only 7 percent lipid, and most of that is in the form of essential fatty acids that promote cholesterol normalization. The essential fatty acids sometimes called vitamin F, include linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid. They are used by the body to manufacture Prostaglandins, the hormonal regulators of blood pressure and capillary resilience. The essential fatty acids are involved in respiration in all the cells, and are especially important to oxygen transport. They affect the health of the hair, skin and nails, and help break up cholesterol in the blood stream. They are not dangerous fat but are absolutely vital to health. Spirulina contains very little starch or sugar. What carbohydrate it supplies, roughly 10 to 15 percent, is primarily in the form of rhamnose and glycogen. These two polysaccharides are easily absorbed by human cells with minimal intervention by insulin. Hence, Spirulina sugars provide speedy energy, without taxing the pancreas or precipitating hypoglycemia. From a caloric standpoint, Spirulina nutrition is economical. There are only approximately 3.9 calories per gram of protein obtained from Spirulina. You would have to consume about 65 calories of beef to obtain a gram of protein. The average 500 mg tablet of Spirulina contains only one to two calories! Some people are concerned about sodium in their diets, and have therefore avoided seaweed foods such as nori, wakami and kombu. These kelp foods are very nutritious, but they do contain significant sodium amounts. Spirulina avoids the sodium problems of algae that grow in the sea, yielding only .206 mg of sodium per tablet. Most hypertension patients are restricted to 2,000 mg or less of sodium per day; Spirulina has such small amounts of sodium that no danger is presented to persons on a salt-restricted diet.